The Ashbrook Center of Ashland University has recently published a collection of historical American documents that is titled, 50 Core American Documents: Required Reading for Students, Teachers, and Citizens. Some may ask, what does this have to do with prepping? Having this knowledge and understanding of our freedoms and how they were gained is the [...]
The Ashbrook Center of Ashland University has recently published a collection of historical American documents that is titled, 50 Core American Documents: Required Reading for Students, Teachers, and Citizens. Some may ask, what does this have to do with prepping? Having this knowledge and understanding of our freedoms and how they were gained is the most important factor in making sure that we are prepared to take on those who wish to take these freedoms from us. You know, the people who believe that because one person gets hurt with an object, that no one should be able to own that object or anything that resembles it. Yeah…those people. These documents are available to view individually on the Ashbrook website, the print version can be purchased from Amazon, or it is available to download for free from iTunes. The list of included documents is as follows:
50 Core American Documents
- Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)
- Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments (James Madison – June 20, 1785)
- Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson – January 16, 1786)
- Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 (James Madison – 1787)
- Constitution of the United States (September 17, 1787)
- Brutus I (October 18, 1787)
- The Federalist No. 1 (Publius – October 27, 1787)
- Brutus II (October 27, 1787)
- The Federalist No. 10 (Publius – October 27, 1787)
- The Federalist No. 51 (Publius – February 6, 1788)
- Speech on Amendments to the Constitution (James Madison – June 8, 1789)
- Letter to the Hebrew Congregation at Newport (George Washington – August 18, 1790)
- Bill of Rights (December 15, 1791)
- “Property” (James Madison – March 29, 1792)
- Farewell Address (George Washington – September 19, 1796)
- First Inaugural Address (Thomas Jefferson – March 4, 1801)
- Marbury v. Madison (February 24, 1803)
- Letter to John Holmes (Thomas Jefferson – April 22, 1820)
- Monroe Doctrine (James Monroe – December 2, 1823)
- Letter to Henry Lee (Thomas Jefferson – May 8, 1825)
- Letter to Roger C. Weightman (Thomas Jefferson – June 24, 1826)
- Webster-Hayne Debates (Daniel Webster and Robert Y. Hayne – January 1830)
- Fort Hill Address (John C. Calhoun – July 26, 1831)
- Veto Message of the Bill of the Bank of the United States (Andrew Jackson – July 10, 1832)
- Proclamation Regarding Nullification (Andrew Jackson – December 10, 1832)
- Speech on the Oregon Bill (John C. Calhoun – June 27, 1848)
- “What to the Slave in the Fourth of July?” (Frederick Douglass – July 5, 1852)
- Speech on the Repeal of the Missouri Compromise (Abraham Lincoln – October 16, 1854)
- Dred Scott v. Sandford (March 6, 1857)
- Fragment on the Constitution and Union (Abraham Lincoln – January 1861)
- “Corner Stone” Speech (Alexander H. Stephens – March 21, 1861)
- Final Emancipation Proclamation (Abraham Lincoln – January 1, 1863)
- Gettysburg Address (Abraham Lincoln – November 19, 1863)
- Resolution Submitting the Thirteenth Amendment to the States (Abraham Lincoln – February 1, 1865)
- Second Inaugural Address (Abraham Lincoln – March 4, 1865)
- Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln (Frederick Douglass – April 14, 1876)
- Plessy v. Ferguson (May 18, 1896)
- Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine (Theodore Roosevelt – December 6, 1904)
- New Nationalism Speech (Theodore Roosevelt – August 31, 1910)
- Progressive Party Platform of 1912 (August 7, 1912)
- “Fourteen Points” Message (Woodrow Wilson – January 8, 1918)
- Speech on the 150th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence (Calvin Coolidge – July 5, 1926)
- Commonwealth Club Address (Franklin D. Roosevelt – September 23, 1932)
- Speech on the Consequences of the Proposed New Deal (Herbert Hoover – October 31, 1932)
- 1944 State of the Union Address (Franklin D. Roosevelt – January 11, 1944)
- The Long Telegram (George Kennan – February 22, 1946)
- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka I and II (1954 and 1955)
- “I Have a Dream” Speech (Martin Luther King – August 28, 1963)
- “Great Society” Speech (Lyndon B. Johnson – May 22, 1964
- “A Time for Choosing” (Ronald Reagan – October 27, 1964)
About 50 Core American Documents
The Ashbrook Center’s 50 Core American Documents is meant to introduce readers to America’s story as it has unfolded from the American Founding into the Twentieth Century. Many of the documents emphasize America’s uniqueness and contributions to the world, but they also present different views on some of the major issues and disputes in American history and government, especially on the meaning of liberty, the injustice of slavery, and the demands of progress. Taken as such, the documents reveal a kind of political dialogue to readers, an ongoing and profoundly consequential conversation about how Americans have agreed and often disagreed on the meaning of freedom and self-government. 50 Core American Documents invites teachers and citizens alike to join in this American political dialogue.
The following is an open letter that I received from a reader regarding the current struggle that we are experiencing for our freedom and individual liberty and what history has to teach us…
“If you will not fight for right when you can easily win without bloodshed; if you will not fight when your victory [...]
The following is an open letter that I received from a reader regarding the current struggle that we are experiencing for our freedom and individual liberty and what history has to teach us…
“If you will not fight for right when you can easily win without bloodshed; if you will not fight when your victory is sure and not too costly; you may come to the moment when you will have to fight with all the odds against you and only a precarious chance of survival. There may even be a worse case. You may have to fight when there is no hope of victory, because it is better to perish than to live as slaves.” ~Winston Churchill
As we engage in the fight for freedom, we repeatedly find ourselves horribly handicapped by seemingly overwhelming problems – we are often massively outspent by grotesquely rich and well-connected Learjet leftists and limousine liberals; the left – given that power, not truth, is paramount, is able to lie with impunity, while we have no such freedom to do so; the “Bombs-Away Billy” Ayers types and their “long march through the institutions” – the most recent incarnation of which is seeing the military being co-opted by multiple generals being fired, possibly for refusing to fire on their fellow American citizens, as well as the placing practicing homosexuals in foxholes – continues apace; Hollywood, the “lamestream media,” and the co-opted education complex all have, as Churchill said about a lie, run around the world before truth could even get her boots on.
Frankly, what hope do we realistically have? Is it true that our hopes are slim to none – and Slim has just left town?
Actually, there is hope. Looking at history, we see an Invisible Hand time and again. Where exactly did that mysterious fog come from when Washington crossed the Delaware to avert utter disaster? Why did the dive bombers at the Battle of Midway make the “chance” turn they did for just one more look before their fuel ran out? Was it just an accident that Reagan didn’t have a major artery severed when he was shot? Unless you believe all is mere chance, we know that history generally has a way of eventually - long or short - resolving the perfidy, arrogance and lies of the Saul Alinsky types that have roamed the world over the centuries. No, it’s not a slam-dunk given – sometimes evil has had a very, very long run. Islam and the USSR are but two examples. But where there are willing, courageous people who pair that with faith in the Unseen Mover, many things have happened in history the bear engender hop. Here are two for your consideration, where faith (in God, freedom or justice) paired with courage resulted in almost unbelievable historical events:
The British aeroplane, the Fairey Swordfish, introduced in 1936, was almost obsolete before its maiden flight touched down. As a matter of fact, by the end of WWII, the German Me262 – along with a few other airplanes – featured jet propulsion… not the Snoopy-like biplane wings reminiscent of WWI airplanes found on the Swordfish. Nor was it well armed. Militaryfactory.com notes that, “The standard armament of the Swordfish was something more akin to the fighters of World War I than the Second World War.” Top speed was 138 MPH – a speed perhaps one or two readers may have come close to in their automobiles (though I admit nothing!) at one time or another – as opposed to the Me262 top speed of 541 MPH, or propeller driven Mustang P-51 top speed of 437 MPH. The more common German opponent, the Me109G, had a maximum speed of close to 400 MPH, dependent upon the model. Long story short, the Swordfish was like putting your grandmother in the ring with Mike Tyson.
Arrayed against the Swordfish during one critical battle of WWII was the most modern warship of its time, the Bismarck, brought to life by the same vaunted German engineering the world still respects today. And the ship was not just modern – it was absolutely bristling with every kind of impenetrable defense armament imaginable, against any kind of attack conceivable. Impenetrable? Arranged with defenses to repel any attack? Does this remind you, perhaps, of a similar political situation today? It sure does me.
In a feat of daring, the Bismarck got out into the open Atlantic after the Battle of Denmark Strait, sinking one major British warship and damaging another. With its unmatched armament, firepower and speed, the whole course of history was about to be changed by Hitler’s National Socialists by shutting down the lifeblood of the war, the convoys, which brought every necessity needed by the Allies to survive.
Enter the tiny, under-powered, under-armed biplane, the Swordfish, armed with a single torpedo. Launched in a seeming suicide mission against the Bismarck (in a previous attack, the aviators had mistakenly attacked one of their own ships!), they struck desperately – and with what seemed to be in failure (only one torpedo hit a heavily armored section, with virtually no damage resulting). Except for one other thing: another torpedo scored a – shall we say – “lucky” hit, striking at the very far stern, hitting the port rudder shaft. In fact, the torpedo came an eyelash from missing completely. But it did hit, and by happenstance – or Providence – the Bismarck’s rudder was damaged and now locked into a 12 degree turn to port, turning it from indomitable – and having survived numerous previous encounters – to almost defenseless. The end, as you know, was not long in coming after that, and the Bismarck – along with its threat to change the war – was no more.
The Swordfish aviators had no way of knowing if they would be successful when they launched; they had no way of knowing whether they would be shark chum in the water in few hours or not. But launch they did, and now we consider them heroes. The application to you, dear reader, need not be spelled out – except that our literary (make no mistake – our battle today is one of the pen, the microphone and the blog, not the sword) Fairey Swordfishes are fighting the supposedly indomitable battleships found in today’s leftist journalism, politically correct educational systems, an utterly corrupt and decadent entertainment complex, and worse.
A similar story during the same war occurred in the Pacific, while the US lay prostrate after Pearl Harbor, when all was seemingly lost. You may know the name of the battle, Midway, but perhaps not the fine print of what happened. Long story short, slow, underpowered torpedo bombers were again used against a superior Japanese force, resulting in one attack where all fifteen TBD Devastators of flight VT-8 were shot down without being able to inflict any damage, flight VT-6 losing 10 of their 14 Devastators, and 10 of Yorktown’s VT-3′s 12 Devastators shot down with no hits to show for their effort. Imagine yourself at that moment: almost all of your attacking aircraft have been lost, with your country’s back already against the wall. You have just watched almost all your friends die in a courageous, but utterly futile attack.
But just one second. Unknown to you, as a flyer in one of the ill-fated attacking torpedo bombers (assuming you were one of the few that lived), in order to shoot down these lumbering American albatrosses, Japanese fighters had to come down to low altitude to shoot them down. Thus, no Japanese fighters were “up top,” watching for enemy aircraft. And there might not have been any American aircraft “up top” if it weren’t for two plucky American dive bomber squadrons – who just happened to be critically low on fuel because of the time spent looking for the enemy, but decided to push a little longer, and a little harder. In fact, squadron commander C. Wade McClusky, Jr., putting his life at risk, decided to continue his search just that little bit little longer, and by good fortune – or Providence- spotted the wake of the Japanese destroyer Arashi, steaming at full speed to rejoin the Japanese fleet after attacking a US submarine. This “happenstance” led the dive bombers directly to the Japanese fleet, which was now bereft of fighter cover at high altitude after engaging – and wiping out – the American torpedo bombers. And those few Japanese planes able to try to mount an attack were low on fuel and ammunition. Happenstance? Providence conjoined with courage? I ask you this: Why was there no fog to cover the Arashi as there was with George Washington?
Perhaps you, as a blogger, feel very akin to those torpedo bombers. You may well be the modern day equivalent, doing a thankless task that has seen little to no success. Yet, may it be your courage, your perseverance, your integrity that could well be opening the path for others? You, like the torpedo bombers who went to their deaths, may never know. But that doesn’t mean your effort is meaningless or insignificant. In fact, it may very well be your sacrificial work that opens the door for someone else. Or, it may be you, yourself, that finds success when you have only 10 minutes of emotional (or financial) fuel left. You may never know, but we do know from these stories about how courage combined with Providence won the day against insurmountable odds. Can we do any less, during a similar time of despair?
There is a third, fictional story that might encourage you, if you are a person of faith, as I am. CS Lewis’ third book his magnificent space trilogy, That Hideous Strength, foresaw a day much like ours now, in which, as Churchill warned while fighting the fascism of that day “But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age, made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.” Does fascism (the merger of the socialist state and big crony corporation) aided by perverted science ring a bell for anyone? In Lewis’ dystopic vision of the future, he imagines one of the leading ministries, N.I.C.E – National Institute for Co-ordinated Experiments, created for the betterment of mankind - leading the charge into state backed utter evil and darkness. (And in a fitting irony, the unsuspecting bureaucrats in England actually obliged us by creating a real, live government department actually called N.I.C.E – National Inst. for Health and Care Excellence. Not that anyone in the British government was aware of this!) In Lewis’ novel, evil progress rapidly across this future “unEngland” – perhaps as rapidly as it is progressing across the West today. But, in the book, the powers that be – by the very nature of who they were and what they were doing - also began to dabble in a science-cum-black-arts, engaging them – all in the name of a perverted science paired with a lust for power – with entities called “macrobes.” Unknown to the elite of Lewis’ N.I.C.E, these “macrobes” were simply demons, shorn of their horns and red suits, all to make them more palatable to the sophisticated elite. Of course, these macrobes easily duped their urbane Agenda 21 literary alter egos, and led them down – as is always the case with demonic forces – paths ending in the destruction of both their programmes as well as their very selves. Devoured by their own flirtations with evil, the result was, as Jacques Mallet du Pan wrote of yet another evil, socialist era, the French Revolution, “la revolution devore ses enfants” – the revolution always eats its own young.
All of the above is to say that we have hope. There is no honor among thieves, and very regularly throughout history, evil eventually turns inward and starts hacking at its own members. Yes, there are indeed times when evil has had a very, very long run. Think of peaceful Coptic Christians in Egypt who have faithfully suffered for a thousand years as dhimmis under Islam as but one example. But God is indeed active in history, or as Lewis put it in his Narnia Chronicles, “Aslan is about.” We don’t know how, or when – but we can be ready, and doing what we can to peacefully, creatively and courageously bring justice and light.
And if Aslan tarries? Then we remain faithful to the calling of faith and freedom. We may indeed perish in that battle against slavery Churchill noted above. But a few stories here, during which freedom hung by a thread, shed at least a glimmer of hope in the current situation we find ourselves.
How can you do a battle of wits with an unarmed person?
Today is Independence Day. Yes, I said Independence Day and not the 4th of July. To me the 4th of July is a day on the calendar. Independence Day is the celebration of America being freed from tyranny at the hands of citizens who committed treason to achieve what they knew was most important, freedom [...]
Today is Independence Day. Yes, I said Independence Day and not the 4th of July. To me the 4th of July is a day on the calendar. Independence Day is the celebration of America being freed from tyranny at the hands of citizens who committed treason to achieve what they knew was most important, freedom and liberty. Please take today to remember what is most important; freedom, faith, and family. If you believe, pray for our leaders to be guided by the hands of God to make sound decisions and to preserve our liberties and freedoms for future generations to come.
Today I write to encourage everyone to take a minute to remember the real reason for Memorial Day. Like all holiday’s, there has been a commercialization that leads many to forget the real reason for the day. Today is not about selling cars, saving up to 50% off at your favorite department store, or getting [...]
Today I write to encourage everyone to take a minute to remember the real reason for Memorial Day. Like all holiday’s, there has been a commercialization that leads many to forget the real reason for the day. Today is not about selling cars, saving up to 50% off at your favorite department store, or getting a free day off. Memorial Day is about remembering those who have made the ultimate sacrifice for their country in armed combat. Whether you find yourself on the right or left side of the aisle, agree or disagree with the military or war, or the decisions that are being made, America’s service members elect to serve our country and to support and defend the Constitution regardless of how they feel about those in command and the orders they are given.
Always remember that those who die in service to America, do so for you.
I will never forget the men and women who I have served with, that made the ultimate sacrifice. Please take a moment of your day to memorialize the brave men and women of the United States Military who gave everything for us.
Thank you to contributor J.V. for submission of this guest post.
Socialism (literally, government) is the great fiction, whereby everybody endeavours to live off of everybody else. ~ Frederic Bastiat, 1801-1850
David Sirota recently penned an article about the Boston Marathon bombing, while the victims were still bleeding one [...]
Thank you to contributor J.V. for submission of this guest post.
Socialism (literally, government) is the great fiction, whereby everybody endeavours to live off of everybody else. ~ Frederic Bastiat, 1801-1850
David Sirota recently penned an article about the Boston Marathon bombing, while the victims were still bleeding one day after the attack, titled Let’s hope the Boston Marathon bomber is a white American.
Of course, Sirota’s reason is simple – he did not want “slander” of Islam, or by extension, any other minorities. Leaving aside the simple question of whether the Qu’ran is violent or not (I have read it twice, and indeed it is – and in fact was founded by violence), Sirota does have an initial valid point that we may perhaps all agree on: We desire all people to have basic human rights and dignity. The question is, how do we get there?
Unfortunately the “logic” of Sirota, and others of his persuasion, breaks down in two areas. The first area is that leftists like Sirota – in their Robespierrian attempt to make everyone equal – have no problems running roughshod over other equally intrinsic rights that are also predicated on basic human rights and dignity, such as the right of free speech, or the right of self-defense, which includes the right to bear arms.
But that is not the concern of this article. Rather, the second, and key concern, of this article is the inhumanity, hypocrisy, hatred and Orwellian control that has historically and intrinsically been part and parcel of the very nature of left. Sirota’s article, written while people were still bleeding in pain, is consistent with the inhumanity of the left. And here is the key point: Is Sirota an aberration? Was this article just a “one-off?” There are certainly people of all persuasions – left, right, center, anarchists, monarchists, etc. – where we can find those who have engaged in violence, so even if there were ten Sirota’s writing in Salon the next day, that would not prove leftists are suspect as a group. And I don’t wish to even hint at the typical Alinsky intellectual fraud of demonizing one person, and then extending that to a full group. It is intellectually bankrupt and – on a different plane – completely irrelevant. I will leave that kind of sophistry to the left. Besides, leftists are much better at it! And, no, I am not being hypocritical here, for my very point is that the left, with few exceptions, always engages in this type of casuistry. That is why they require their campus speech police, a compliant, “lamestream” media, a well-oiled propaganda machine, and hordes of “Yes We Can!” chanters. Rather, my belief is that as the conservative and libertarian views have an intrinsic, explanatory adequacy, we needn’t devolve into the leftist shenanigans of organizations like Moveon.org, etc. to win the day. Rather, people of good will and fair-mindedness will see the reasoning behind the conservative argument, just as even after decades of iron-fisted, propaganda filled Soviet rule, the moral and intellectual bankruptcy of socialism – the emperor with no clothes – could still be seen. Yes, it would be ideal if leftists would grant the same fairness to conservatives, but in my experience with the left, basic logic, evenhandedness and intellectual integrity such as this passes by their reasoning like “two sheep in the night” (pun intended). I learned this lesson the hard way on one of the very first papers I wrote while an undergrad at university, where I was clearly marked down on a paper by a leftist professor who did not agree with a few minor observations made within the writing.
My concern is that the left, in general, is built around a philosophy that treats people as animals, has utilitarianism as its religion, and is at core one of the most blatantly hypocritical and violent movements to ever un-grace the face of the planet. The left is not so much concerned about justice as they are about their own conceit that they alone have the knowledge to control everyone and everything. I recall a cartoon from decades ago, the author now lost to antiquity, which had one rich man stating to another “First I thought it was sex, then money… but now I know it is power.” And importantly, power without humanity equals tyranny. This is exactly what is occurring today.
Where does our humanity – without which everything degrades into utilitarianism and depersonalized “citizens” (here I disparagingly use the term “citizens” as Robespierre did) - derive from? Ultimately, we are left with two choices: God or man. And if the latter, then those rights may also be taken away by the same entity that “granted” them. The most successful country and culture in the history of man, the U.S., adhered to the former, of course. Thomas Jefferson stated that our rights were endowed by our Creator in our founding document. Other writers such as CS Lewis, in his short book The Abolition of Man, have noted that ethics ultimately have no basis without the absolutes from whence they derive. Or as the Russian philosopher Nicolai Berdyaev once put it, “If there is no God, man does not exist either.” But let me not even go down the “religious” path – Albert Camus, who was no Christian – alluded to the same idea, once stating that a finite point, without an infinite reference point, has no meaning.
So, where does the socialist un-vision lead us? As writer and Fabian socialist G.B. Shaw once wrote, “You would be forcibly fed, clothed, lodged, taught and employed, whether you liked it or not. If it were discovered that you had not the character and industry enough to be worth all this trouble, you might possibly be executed in a kindly manner.” And shouldn’t our dear leaders do as Shaw, suggests, for recall that in the left’s world, your rights are granted by the man created state, and can be revoked that same man created state. Or, as Fyodor Dostoyevski stated, if there is no God, everything is permissible. And what is this “permissible?” This is simply answered, by taking a look at the track record of the left, which has been one consistent record of oppression, lack of compassion, murder and poverty. To wit:
Dr. Arthur Brooks of Syracuse University has written one of the most important books on the topic of leftist faux “compassion,” entitled Who Really Cares. This book is worthy of being a cornerstone in your personal library, with 200 pages of very heavily documented statistics noting, for example, that religious conservatives are more likely than leftists to give money away, volunteer for community concerns, and even give to secular charities. Most strikingly, if leftists gave blood at the same rate as conservatives, the blood supply for critical, life-saving medical support would increase by 45% (see page 22 in Brooks’ book).
In another must-read book, Do As I Say, Not As I Do, by Peter Schweizer, he profiles the utter hypocrisy of liberal icons such as Nancy Pelosi, who owns - in addition to multiple other properties – a vineyard on Zinfandel Lane in St. Helena, CA, worth $25 million in 2005. What’s the big deal about this? Pelosi, who would like a national holiday commemorating United Farm Workers’ Cesar Chavez, will not let UFW union workers pick the grapes for the Pelosi vineyard’s $100 a bottle wine, says Schweizer. And it’s not that they don’t make a lot of dough off their vineyard – as of the book’s writing, financial disclosures showed $200k to $2 million profits on this vineyard alone in the preceding years. But, as we also see, e.g., with carbon billionaire Al Gore, profit trumps ethics and intellectual integrity. Babs Streisand, another Hollywood Learjet leftist? Schweizer quotes Brad Meltzer worked for her for a year and half, and commented about her treatment of the working staff, stating that she was “… absolutely mean and niggardly about the salaries of the working people she hired,” and referring to some young illegal immigrants she hired for $3.50/hr to do menial work, when they asked for 25 cents/hr more for overtime work, Meltzer says “She told me to fire them and have them replaced. It killed me, but I did it.” And let’s not forget other similar examples, such as Hilary Clinton with her miraculous cattle trades, Whitewater and her host of other get rich quick schemes.
Hatred from the left? Here is security camera footage from the homosexual gun attack on Family Research Council, where the perpetrator intended to kill dozens of innocent people, and then wipe Chik-Fil-A sandwiches all over them in a final insult to those he murdered.
I have personally witnessed similar physical threats of violence by homosexuals in a meeting of parents’ elementary school children, so this comes as no surprise to me.
Violence? PoliticalOutcast.com notes that John Wilkes Booth, a Democrat, shot and killed President Lincoln; Charles Guiteau, who was a member of the communist Oneida Community, shot and killed President Garfield; Leon Czolgosz, a leftist anarchist (similar to the useful idiots in the Occupy movement) killed President McKinley. Meanwhile, some other lefties who had failed assassination attempts (whose politics we know) include Severino Di Giovanni, a leftist anarchist, tried to bomb President-elect Hoover’s train, Giuseppe Zangara, a professed anti-capitalist, tried shooting President-elect Franklin Roosevelt; Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, two Marxists, tried killing President Truman at the Blair House; Samuel Byck, who tried joining the leftist Black Panther group, attempted to kill President Nixon. As well, Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme, member of the Manson Family and also a hippie environmentalist, shot at President Ford; Sara Jane Moore tried to kill Pres. Ford as well because, as she said, “the government had declared war on the Left”; Ramiro Ortega-Hernandez, a leftist connected to the Occupy movement, tried getting a one-in-a-billion shot at Obama by firing a gun at the White House.
As if the murder and terrors of Robespierre weren’t enough of a clue, the outcome of leftist philosophy reached its nadir a century later, starting in the USSR. When the Russians opened their archives after the fall of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, they admitted that there were 61 – 62 million “excess deaths.” Dr. RJ Rummell of Univ. of Hawaii, in his book Death by Government, has painstakingly detailed that roughly 170 million people were murdered by their own governments in the last century, with about 99% of those deaths coming at the hands of socialist countries. Meanwhile Stephane Courtois, et al, in the highly regarded Black Book of Communism, stated the numbers murdered by the left were around 100 million. You say tomato, I say tomahto….but any way you slice the leftist killings (assuming knives are not yet banned), the left has murdered and oppressed more human beings than any other movement in the history of the world.
Interestingly, there is one key word in the paragraph above that needs special attention: the word “excess” used by the Russians. The significance of this is that even after many decades of socialist propaganda, dehumanization, oppression, there was still a conscience in people, as well as an innate recognition that what was done was simply evil. It almost as if they couldn’t bring themselves to us the word “murdered,” and needed some Cain and Abel type euphemism to attempt to hide the blood of their murdered brothers. And therein lies some hope for us.
While the list could go on for dozens of pages about the hypocrisy and violence of the left, what is the real point of the above? Just to mud sling? Certainly, conservatives have their own failures, and a list could be made of that, too. I, myself, could also have a list made of my own failures and hypocrisies. But this objection proves the very point: All men and women are fallible, and truly absolute power corrupts absolutely. Which is why the basis of the American Constitution, with its separation of powers, is utterly central, and why the erosion of Constitutional principles will lead to disaster, totalitarianism, and worse. Generally speaking the core of the conservative and libertarian views is that this very recognition of fallibility is built into their guiding principles, in a way that socialism denies theoretically, or practically. It is also the reason why conservatives and libertarians will not be shut up, as the alternative is a fate worse than if Hitler took over the world… and why this post is written.
In conclusion, returning to the Russians – who know a thing or two about the abject failure of socialism – as one observed “The future kingdom of socialism will be a terrible tyranny of criminals and murderers. It will throw humanity into a true hell of spiritual suffering and poverty.” (Fyodor Dostoyevski). But, of course, the hypocrite elite, the Learjet leftists and limousine liberals, will still be living in splendor, and as Orwell warned us, while we will all be equal in this socialist dystopia, some of us will be “more equal” than the others. Just ask leftists George Clooney with his multiple megamansions (you can Google this for your own verification, and to see actual pictures), Sean Penn and his palatial digs, Mikey Moore with his NY penthouse and multi-million dollar mansion on Torch Lake, MI, Madonna, or a thousand other Hollyweird glitterati – when not even one of them will open up just one room in just one of their zillion square foot mansions. Just think of Obama supporter Tom Hanks, who in 2010 purchased a 14,500-square-foot mega mansion in Pacific Palisades for $26 million, which was the largest transaction for a single-family home in Los Angeles County that year. Any tent people you know of bunking there?
In conclusion, even socialists sometimes have an inkling of the inherent insufficiency of socialism. Leftist French writer Andre Gide wrote, after visiting the socialist workers paradise of Stalin, that “I doubt that in any country of the world, even Hitler’s Germany, is thought less free, more bowed down, more terrorized,” while on the opposite side of the world, Chinese philosopher Lin Yutang wrote of socialism he saw in communist China that included “making 12 year old children subject to capital punishment, sending women to work in underground coal mines, harassing workers during their lunchtime with threats of prison – or worse – if they were late returning to work.”
Friends, we have our work cut out for us. That work is non-violent in nature. But we need to speak, communicate and educate. That is the path forward. The alternative is a fate worse than if Hitler had won.
Nothing says, “Parking Permit Required!” like two giant stone walls with gates around your neighborhood. This is exactly what is planned though for The Citadel, a concept community conceived by patriots and financed by the III Arms Company. Current plans have the community slated to be built in [...]
Nothing says, “Parking Permit Required!” like two giant stone walls with gates around your neighborhood. This is exactly what is planned though for The Citadel, a concept community conceived by patriots and financed by the III Arms Company. Current plans have the community slated to be built in the mountains of Idaho or somewhere else in the region that James Wesley Rawles has dubbed, The American Redoubt. Stemming from an idea bounced around the liberty focused blogosphere in 2012, this community has quickly come to fruition with 20 acres already purchased in Benewah County, Idaho to house the relocated headquarters and factory of the III Arms Company.
For many, this scenario makes a lot of sense while others are concerned that this type of community creates a giant target for the government. I see both sides of the argument but think that The Citadel will catch on. Especially if the federal government continues to move in the direction of current travel. While such communities may not be a perfect solution, at least there are groups looking for a solution. Below are some of the details about The Citadel…
What can I expect to find within the walls of The Citadel community?
The Citadel expects to offer the following features:
- III Arms Factory
- Curtain Walls & Towers, Main Gate
- John Parker Town Green
- Town Hall
- Community Armory
- Citadel Firearms Museum
- Town Center – Retail/Commercial
- Farmer’s Market
- Medical Center
- Retirement Facility
- Citadel Schools/Boarding School
- Tourist Visitor Center
- Firearms/Archery Ranges
- Sports Fields
- III Bank
- Power/Biomass/Water Plant
- Underground Shelter
- Post Office
- Fire House
- Grounds Building
- Walking Trails
- Outdoor Pavilions/Amphitheatre
- Command & Control Center
- Media Center
- Shuttle System/Parking Center
Who can live in this community?
Anyone who is willing to agree to the Patriot Agreement as outlined by the community’s organizers. In addition, the concept of the Citadel holds dear to the idea of Rightful Liberty, allowing for free practices without limit of race or religion.
How does this idea of Patriot communal living work?
Each home will be a lifetime lease instead of owned as personal property. The Citadel spells it out as a Patriot Disneyland:
One of the primary reasons for a lease paradigm versus private property inside the walls is our desire to make the community for Patriots only.
The model will be similar in many ways to that of Disneyland. It is walled, gated, private property with controlled access. People pay to enter and agree to the rules because they see value in doing so. It is all based on a voluntary agreement between the owners of the property and those who want to come inside. Millions of people visit Disneyland and interact peacefully. It’s exceptionally rare to hear of any serious problems. The key is that those people want to be there and understand what is expected of them. Surprisingly similar to what we are doing.
According to the Citadel website, each home will include:
Every Citadel home will come with a 2,500 gallon water tank, a one year supply of food for either 1 or 2 adults, 1 or 2 AR15-variant rifles and 1,000 rounds of ammunition per rifle, a generator, a composting toilet, a vault, a protective Safe Room.
The threats that the Citadel will be designed to combat are:
The Citadel is primarily designed to defend against a grid-down, economic collapse scenario. When most people ask this question they are thinking in terms of defending against violent action but there are other aspects to defending ourselves. Self-sufficiency in terms of food, water and energy are also a form of defense against a collapse scenario, so these are a major part of our plan.
The Citadel is not designed to withstand any direct .Mil or .Gov attack. Nor is the Citadel, in any manner, attempting to provoke any government entity.
What does living in The Citadel community cost?
According to the official Citadel Housing Cost Calculator, housing will run anywhere from $347 for a 600 square foot house on one acre outside of the walls all the way up to $6,998 for a 10,000 square foot house on one acre inside the walls. There are other options available such as a 300 square foot emergency micro-suite inside the walls for an additional cost of $250 a month.
The folks of the Citadel and III Arms Company have also come up with an answer for why this project will succeed while other similar concepts have failed previously:
Why Do You Think You Will Succeed Where Others Have Failed?
An effort such as this can have philosophical, social, economic, political and religious aspects that must be considered. Previous attempts have either ignored one or more of those aspects or not understood the consequences of the decisions that were made that affect them.
Our effort is based on Rightful Liberty which, as a live-and-let-live philosophy, makes us good neighbors. We feel no need to convert anyone to our way of thinking or try to control anyone else’s behavior, except to the extent needed to defend our Rightful Liberty. We have a base economic engine for the Citadel in the form of the III Arms Company that should provide initial financial support. We have the Patriot Agreement, a contract that clearly spells out our expectations of one another. We believe in the rule of law and have no interest in creating conflict with anyone. We will be an open community that encourages visitors and tourists. Most importantly, our efforts are based on voluntary action and voluntary association.
These factors should let us build a physical and social structure that will let us pursue our goal of a sustainable and defensible living space without the usual negative reactions that efforts like this often create.
It will be interesting to see how this Patriot community develops…
If you think living among fellow Patriots in the Citadel is for you, apply here.
“Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.”
This is what Chris Kyle exemplified, not only in his willingness to stand up and do everything that his country asked of him but ultimately giving his life trying to help a fellow veteran that many Americans would have readily thrown onto the pile of unviable, “war damaged” minds. Chris never quit and he never gave up.
Thank you for your life of service Chief Petty Officer Christopher Scott Kyle……
Today is Veterans Day 2012! I would just like to take the chance to thank all those that I have served with, those that have served before us, and those who continue to serve our great country.
For those who have family members who have made the ultimate sacrifice for our country, that sacrifice will [...]
Today is Veterans Day 2012! I would just like to take the chance to thank all those that I have served with, those that have served before us, and those who continue to serve our great country.
For those who have family members who have made the ultimate sacrifice for our country, that sacrifice will never be forgotten and I personally will never be able to express my gratitude for such sacrifice.
The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything. ~Albert Einstein
I hope that all of those veterans out there had a great Veterans Day! Don’t ever forget that there doesn’t have to be a specific day or moment specified to express your gratitude. There is never a bad time to say thank you to a veteran for standing up and defending the interests of the United States and Americans everywhere.
I was going to post something else today on wild edibles but there is something much more important that needs to be addressed today so wild edibles will wait, forever if that is what it takes. Eleven years ago today, nearly 3,000 Americans died in what would go into the record books as one of [...]
I was going to post something else today on wild edibles but there is something much more important that needs to be addressed today so wild edibles will wait, forever if that is what it takes. Eleven years ago today, nearly 3,000 Americans died in what would go into the record books as one of the worst terrorist attacks in history. It seems like America has forgotten this. It seems likes America’s leaders have almost forgotten what happened eleven short years ago. The President of the United States himself did not even go to the site of each aircraft that fell that day. It makes me sick. Makes you wonder who he cares about, huh?
I have not forgotten and I refuse to forget. I refuse to forget about the victims of the plane crashes. I refuse to forget about the victims families. I refuse to forget about the first responders that day. I refuse to forget all those affected by the events that day that have taken their own lives or had family members that have done the same. I refuse to forget about those affected who have turned to substance abuse as a way to treat their problems. I refuse to forget the members of our military who have stood watch over our national interests abroad for the last eleven years so that these vile acts will not be repeated in our country again. I especially refuse to forget the members of our military special operations units who on May 2, 2011 killed Osama bin Laden and dumped his body into the ocean with the other algae covered scum to rot forever. Copper-jacketed justice is the best justice!
WE WILL NOT FORGET!!! 9-11-2011
The following are three poems that I found about the events of September 11, 2001 that resonated with me:
We Shall Never Forget (9-11 Tribute)
Let the world always remember,
That fateful day in September,
And the ones who answered duties call,
Should be remembered by us all.
Who left the comfort of their home,
To face perils as yet unknown,
An embodiment of goodness on a day,
When men’s hearts had gone astray.
Sons and daughters like me and you,
Who never questioned what they had to do,
Who by example, were a source of hope,
And strength to others who could not cope.
Heroes that would not turn their back,
With determination that would not crack,
Who bound together in their ranks,
And asking not a word of thanks.
Men who bravely gave their lives,
Whose orphaned kids and widowed wives,
Can proudly look back on their dad,
Who gave this country all they had.
Actions taken without regret,
Heroisms we shall never forget,
The ones who paid the ultimate price,
Let’s never forget their sacrifice.
And never forget the ones no longer here,
Who fought for the freedoms we all hold dear,
And may their memory never wane,
Lest their sacrifices be in vain.
Alan W. Jankowski
if bin laden read dr. seuss
2001 September 18
so then, bin laden is this
what you do for fun? blow
people up? kill? destroy?
i have some suggestions
you might want to try instead.
read dr. seuss. smell a flower.
do a cartwheel. watch little
children playing & drink grape
kool aid. paint pictures with
red & green tempura. eat an
orange. bin laden, you have
four wives. doesn’t sex do it
for you? open yer arms to the
smiling moonlight. tell your
lieutenent to put down his gun
& the two of you play catch.
fire up some afghani red in
a 12-hose hookah & bliss out.
did you ever watch a bogart
movie? how about cartoons?
bin laden, allah is not honored
when you kill 5,000 americans.
feed five thousand with loaves
& fish & see what allah says
about that. dude, can’t you go to
a soccer game or a chili joint?
feed pidgeons in the park?
bin laden millions of afghans
are starving, can’t you use
your millions to drill wells
& grow wheat? the arab world
needs a savior, not a fugitive killer.
you could build a band-aid factory
& manufacture penicillin &
piece together lost souls with
ointment & a gentle touch.
bin laden we look up at the same
sky, count the same stars, watch
vast oceans from the same precipice.
don’t you get it, man? yer fever
can be measured in degrees.
we have but one mission: to
clothe the naked, build houses
for the homeless, carry the sick
to the doctor. not so very far from
where you are, mother teresa
reached out to the wretched
poorest of the poor in india’s slums.
where did it all go wrong bin laden?
tonight you will dream of lambs
& flutes & calm nectars from
fruited vines, because i will it so
& that white light you see is my
shadow. open yer heart man, have
some green eggs, i know you don’t
eat ham, & i’d like you to meet
my friend sam, yes, sam i am
BILLY COLLINS, poet laureate of the United States: This poem is dedicated to the victims of September 11 and to their survivors.
Yesterday, I lay awake in the palm of the night.
A soft rain stole in, unhelped by any breeze,
And when I saw the silver glaze on the windows,
I started with A, with Ackerman, as it happened,
Then Baxter and Calabro,
Davis and Eberling, names falling into place
As droplets fell through the dark.
Names printed on the ceiling of the night.
Names slipping around a watery bend.
Twenty-six willows on the banks of a stream.
In the morning, I walked out barefoot
Among thousands of flowers
Heavy with dew like the eyes of tears,
And each had a name –
Fiori inscribed on a yellow petal
Then Gonzalez and Han, Ishikawa and Jenkins.
Names written in the air
And stitched into the cloth of the day.
A name under a photograph taped to a mailbox.
Monogram on a torn shirt,
I see you spelled out on storefront windows
And on the bright unfurled awnings of this city.
I say the syllables as I turn a corner –
Kelly and Lee,
Medina, Nardella, and O’Connor.
When I peer into the woods,
I see a thick tangle where letters are hidden
As in a puzzle concocted for children.
Parker and Quigley in the twigs of an ash,
Rizzo, Schubert, Torres, and Upton,
Secrets in the boughs of an ancient maple.
Names written in the pale sky.
Names rising in the updraft amid buildings.
Names silent in stone
Or cried out behind a door.
Names blown over the earth and out to sea.
In the evening — weakening light, the last swallows.
A boy on a lake lifts his oars.
A woman by a window puts a match to a candle,
And the names are outlined on the rose clouds –
Vanacore and Wallace,
(let X stand, if it can, for the ones unfound)
Then Young and Ziminsky, the final jolt of Z.
Names etched on the head of a pin.
One name spanning a bridge, another undergoing a tunnel.
A blue name needled into the skin.
Names of citizens, workers, mothers and fathers,
The bright-eyed daughter, the quick son.
Alphabet of names in a green field.
Names in the small tracks of birds.
Names lifted from a hat
Or balanced on the tip of the tongue.
Names wheeled into the dim warehouse of memory.
So many names, there is barely room on the walls of the heart.
A foundation of stone…what does that mean? It is in reference to the fact that our country was built on a foundation of stone. A solid foundation. A foundation that was designed to withstand the trials and tribulations of time. Unfortunately, the time has come where some “Americans” have started to chip away at and [...]
A foundation of stone…what does that mean? It is in reference to the fact that our country was built on a foundation of stone. A solid foundation. A foundation that was designed to withstand the trials and tribulations of time. Unfortunately, the time has come where some “Americans” have started to chip away at and weaken our countries foundation. The only way to maintain our great country is to maintain our foundation. In order to know where we are, we have to know where we came from. The Constitution is one of the United States of America’s founding documents and one that everyone should read and at a minimum, be familiar with. This post is about being familiar with our roots, our Patriot Forefathers, and what makes America great. Please take the time to read it and if you know a fellow Patriot, please pass this along as a reminder of the importance of our Constitution.
Anyone who listens to my teaching and follows it is wise, like a person who builds a house on solid rock. Though the rain comes in torrents and the floodwaters rise and the winds beat against that house, it won’t collapse because it is built on bedrock.
Constitution of the United States
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislaturethereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.
The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.
No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.
All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:
Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–”I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.
The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;–to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;–to Controversies between two or more States;–between a State and Citizens of another State,–between Citizens of different States,–between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.
Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.
All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
The Word, “the,” being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, the Word “Thirty” being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words “is tried” being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word “the” being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.
Attest William Jackson Secretary
done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
Presidt and deputy from Virginia
Gunning Bedford jun
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
James Madison Jr.
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Wm. Saml. Johnson