Category Archives: Constitution

Distant Hoofbeats: Western Refusniks & the End of Fascism

The following is a guest contribution from J.R. I will admit, his chosen vocabulary is beyond my everyday comprehension and I needed to look up a few word definitions, but the theory is sound; we will not ever achieve self-sufficiency or survive our chosen way of life as long as there are those who think they need to decide what is best for us, instead of allowing us the freedoms endowed to us by God.

Distant Hoofbeats: Western Refusniks and the End of Fascism

Scarely a day goes by, in which you and I don’t read about some outrage by the leftist police state against the Constitution and our basic human freedoms, as understood going as far back as the Magna Carta. The days seem very black – and indeed, they are very black. Fascism – the term here not used as a slur, but as defined by both Mussolini, as well as Webster’s Dictionary, denoting the merger of the socialist state and large, co-opted organizations – runs rampant uber alles. Profits are privatized for connected cronies, and losses are assigned to the shrinking middle class.

Is there any hope?

In a word, yes… possibly. There just may be some hoofbeats sounding in the distance that will draw nearerer and nearer – if we continue to do our part locally – what duties are right here in front of us, today, here and now. The media gatekeepers, of course, will utter nary a peep about these distant hoofbeats, so don’t look for reports of this in the “lamestream” media. In fact, this very sound portends their demise as well, so perforce they will suppress this gathering maelstrom against them at all costs. Nevertheless, as the servant of the biblical prophet Elijah reported back to him during similarly bleak times in ancient Israel as he battled evil there, there is indeed – if you look closely enough – a cloud in the distance. It is today, as it was then, as small as a man’s hand – but it is growing.

I am not saying you will agree with each of these people I cite below. I am saying that there is a growing discontent and blowback, from people across the spectrum against the controllers – and most tellingly, there are many refusniks (this term is from the Soviet era, regarding people who decided to not go along with the Soviet charade) out of the group of people formerly either siding with the controllers, or who actually were numbered amongst the controllers,  and who have now changed sides.

Anyone who can fog a mirror is aware of Eric Snowden (yes, you are correct – perhaps a third of Americans walking the streets may not be able to actually pass that test, but you get my point). And here is the question that has the controllers – just like their Soviet forebears – quaking in their boots: Who is next, and how can they ultimately stop people from defecting?

Let me provide a small sample of those riders in the distance, even if the troop has not emerged out of the blue horizon just yet:

Karen Hudes: Former counsel to the World Bank, Hudes now claims the US government has been co-opted by a global corporatists (and please note, I am drawing a very definite division between fascist corportism and its complete opposite, classic capitalism as envisaged by Adam Smith, Ludwig von Mises and others). See this summary account of Hudes’ “global conspiracy” or even better, go to YouTube and search for “Karen Hudes whistleblower.”  Listen to her speak for herself.

Sharyl Attkisson: Ms. Attkisson, was formally an award winning journalist on CBS, aka the “Constantly Barack Show.” Unfortunately, she had the temerity to follow the facts where they led, relative to the Benghazi cover up. After multiple insults to her professional standing – including having her computer hacked, Attkisson left or was pushed out. A few accounts include this one by CBS and this YouTube video, The Ulsterman Report also has a fine summary of the issue. Or do your own research, by simply googling her name. In fact, Bob Woodward, who uncovered Watergate, is also comparing the Benghazi story Atkissson was following to – well… Watergate. Here he is in his own words on the topic.

John Perkins: Perkins wrote Confessions of an Economic Hit Man and is yet another refusnik who once came from the upper echelons of the moneyed controllers, but deserted the ranks. Here he is in just one of his interviews. There is debate surrounding Perkins’ bona fides, so if you wish, throw out his testimony and move on to others here whose credentials are clearly impeccable.

Julian Assange and Bradley Manning: No, I don’t agree with them in many respects either, and there are instances where national security needs to be protected. However, the point is that from across the spectrum, people are opting for greater transparency and democratic control, not control of the hoi polloi by the self – proclaimed elite – and that is a good thing.

William Binney: Binney was a senior NSA manager turned whistleblower, and he – along with Russell Tice below – is one of the most important refusniks outlined in this article. Simply go to YouTube and search for his name – there are many, many interviews with this important man, exposing how the Constitution – the one human document that has arguably brought more human felicity and prosperity than any other document penned in history – has been co-opted and shredded. Binney was the person who actually created a good portion of the NSA infrastructure – and yet he had second thoughts, and is now a committed foe against unconstitutional over-reach.

Russell Tice: Tice is another senior member whistle blower from the NSA, who likes the Constitution over the police state. He notes that the NSA was spying on Colin Powell when he was leading our military, senior leadership in Congress, the Supreme Court, generals and admirals, and many more.

Nomi Prins: Ex-Goldman Sachs managing direct Nomi Prins who also worked for Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers and Chase Manhattan Bank, has also defected. Prins, who wrote All the Presidents’ Bankers: The Hidden Alliances that Drive American Power speaks with Greg Hunter hereAnd of all those banker “suicides” of the past few months, how many were actually murders? That is, murders of other people who were having second thoughts 

Pippa Malmgren: Dr. Pippa Malmgren, former White House official who was Special Assistant to the President of the United States for Economic Policy and a former member of the U.S. President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, also known as the Plunge Protection Team; formerly headed the Global Asset Management business for Bankers Trust in Asia, out of Hong Kong, and was also Chief Currency Strategist for Bankers Trust Company, and former Head of Global Investment Strategy at UBS. Dr. Malmgren was also a senior consultant to Deutsche Bank, and currently advises the largest sovereign wealth funds, hedge funds, and pension funds in the world. While not defecting to the other side in full, at least in her interview with King World News she certainly appears to have issues with the “powers that be.”

A few other refusniks including singer Tina Turner, Facebook founder Eduardo Saverin, filmmaker Terry Gilliam and songwriter-socialite Denise Rich, all of whom have renounced their U.S. citizenship in the past few years. Personal Liberty.com shows they are just part of a growing cadre that are voting to leave the Orwellian Workers’ Paradise with their feet.

In fact, Americans are leaving the country at record speed and the annual rate of expatriation is growing as over 150,000 Americans departed the former land of liberty for greener pastures overseas in the past year of 2013. There are now over five million Americans who are choosing to live outside the United States.

Daily Reckoning’s new investment director, Paul Mampilly, who formerly managed a $23 billion mutual fund, is also a perfect exemplar who has defected from the side of fascism. Peter Coyne quotes him as saying, “I could be making 5-10 times what I’m making right now. But do you want to know why I left Wall Street? Because back in 2008, nobody was making any money. Except, of course, for the guys on the Street. Outside, people were losing their jobs… their homes… their savings. No one on the inside seemed to have a problem with it. I simply did not think it was fair or right.” Mampilly is clear evidence of English philosopher/theologian Os Guiness’ dictum that while all philosophies might be arguable, not all are livable. And it is this dictum that is the death knell over the controllers fascist state.

One more interesting refusnik for your consideration. Rosa Koire, a Democrat and lesbian from San Francisco, is the founder of www.democratsagainstunagenda21.com . Yes really! Here she is speaking out against one of the primary vehicles by which the controllers wish to gain their hegemony over us poor, unwashed masses, by agency of the horrific neo-communist Agenda 21. When a Democrat lesbian from San Francisco  abandons the Orwellian nanny state ship, there is indeed something afoot.

The above is just a mere smattering of a few who have jumped ship. My goal in this article is not to be comprehensive, but rather just provide a small sampling for your reference. There are many roads leading to the abandonment of the Cult of the Brobdignagian State, but what is encouraging, is that these roads are becoming more and more crowded with those exiting… and I believe that, if one observes very closely, you can not only hear hoof beats from distant horses, but if I’m not mistaken, you can actually see the dust rising from their galloping towards you.

The reality is that, while man is imperfect, we have also all been furnished with an internal compass that cannot be violated, unless we wish to erode the very thing that makes us human. As early as Cain and Abel, Cain could not but help hearing the very blood of his brother whom he slew calling out from the ground against him. There are others today hearing that voice. Let’s do what we can to amplify expression.

Will You Fight? (Follow Up)

I recently made the post, ‘Will You Fight?’ that was written by Dean Garrison about the attempt to outlaw firearms in America and whether we have a responsibility to fight if the government comes to take our guns away. The website D.C. Clothesline has Mr. Garrison’s follow up response to his original writing. It is posted below. As he states, please spread the message and let our fellow Patriots know that they are not alone!

“Guard with jealous attention the public liberty. Suspect everyone who approaches that jewel. Unfortunately, nothing will preserve it but downright force. Whenever you give up that force, you are inevitably ruined.” -Patrick Henry

About 45 days ago I wrote an article entitled “If They Come for Your Guns Do You Have a Responsibility to Fight?” At the time this article, from an obscure blogger, changed my world. Within days I had become part of something much bigger than I could have ever imagined. The post was featured on literally hundreds of websites, and to date has received millions of readers.

How did it happen? Well on January 3rd, people were still not saying what needed to be said and I suppose I was one of the first to say it. It is not about deer hunting and we are all covered by a second amendment which is about our rights to protect ourselves from tyranny. So I said it. If they come for your guns it is not only your right but your responsibility to fight. Yes, that includes firing upon them. It’s not about hunting deer. The second amendment is about hunting tyrants.

Since pushing the “publish” button, I have had literally hundreds of conversations with people who believe that tyranny is an unchecked virus within our own federal government. I get so many messages every day that I can literally not respond to all of them. So, today I want to talk about where we go from here.

It is a growing conception that we can not wait. While we sit and wait, our government continues an all out assault on our rights as free men and women of the United States of America. Many people believe that there is no peaceful alternative. Many people believe that we must organize and fight. Today I can offer no concrete set of actions but I do want to lay out some thoughts that I think need to be discussed.

First I need to tell you that I sincerely believe that the government is, in a twisted way, hoping that a small group of Patriots will organize and start a half-cocked rebellion. I think they realize that this can happen and also realize that it can strengthen their case for gun control. I would not put it past them to stage such an event.

I believe that a small, poorly planned rebellion will do us more harm than good. It will be easily suppressed and it will give the powers that be even more ammunition for a declaration of martial law. It is my belief that martial law, or a “police state,” is the end goal of this administration. You don’t have to look hard to see that they are preparing for it. As recently as two weeks ago the Reverend Jesse Jackson was even asking for it in his home town of Chicago.

We must understand that there are literally millions of people who have concluded that letters, petitions, peaceful demonstrations and elections are not working. They are in agreement that revolution is the only way to potentially fix this problem. But if a small group of 50 or even 500 people start the revolt, it is likely to go nowhere. We must develop a united front and we must go through proper channels. We can not skirt the law to try to uphold it.

The problem I see, once again, is the same problem that I witnessed 45 days ago. Everyone is waiting for someone to take the lead. So today I am going to offer to do that. With that said, I want to tell you that I am nothing more than a blogger. I don’t have any grand visions of being elected to any office. I am not a skilled military strategist. I am not an advanced “prepper” or survival expert. I am nothing special. I suppose the only thing truly special about me is that I am not afraid to speak my mind. I still understand that this is my God-given right as an American citizen.

I know full well that the first amendment in this country is currently an illusion. I know that writing this could get me arrested or killed. If you were to ask me if I was afraid I would simply answer that yes I am afraid, but I am more afraid of what will happen to our country if people do not begin to speak up.

I understand and follow the methods our current administration and lawmakers are using to take away our most basic rights. They can detain me indefinitely. If they choose to see me as an enemy of the state they can do worse. There will be no due process. It will not matter how many people support me. I can be made to disappear and become a non-factor. So why am I speaking about this?

Once again, it’s because someone has to. Until someone starts to speak of these things we have zero chance to change anything. We can’t fight the destruction of America with splintered cells of people who are afraid to raise their voices. We must be United. This is not negotiable.

I will not endorse an open attack (violent or non-violent) upon the federal government unless and until I feel like we have given them one last chance to represent us.

The first thing that “We the People” must do is set forth a list of our demands. This is our country. We need to pinpoint every change that we wish to see made and we must deliver these to the lawmakers. I am offering today to be that messenger. That is one thing that I can do, but I can not do it alone. I will need massive response. The only way that will happen is if this post goes viral like the post from 45 days ago.  I can not guarantee that will happen, but I can guarantee it will happen if millions of people are truly in support of this revolution. Time will tell.

If we get little response then I will assume that my theories are wrong. The people will decide. I’ve been wrong before. It would not be the first time.

Here is what I need. I need people to list executive orders and laws that are in violation of our constitutional rights (list everything in the comments below). We will be demanding that these laws and executive orders be repealed.

I need open discussion of what we need to do with the people currently in office. Do we call for new elections? Can we literally remove them all? We are talking about more than Obama here. We have to understand that many people have been compliant (Republicans and Democrats) with the policies and actions that we too easily credit to Obama. This is not a problem isolated to one person. My thought is that they should keep their jobs if they start to work within the framework of the constitution. But if they do not then we will have to forcibly remove them.

Make no mistake the constitution is the law of this land, not public opinion.

We need to discuss policies (foreign and domestic) and cabinet appointments as well. We need to literally make a list of everything that needs to change. We can’t expect everything to change immediately but we must address the issues that are important to freedom. We must list things that are constitutionally based. In other words, I don’t like everything about my government but my major concerns are the things that blatantly violate the constitution. I have to focus on these things and not merely on my opinions. Unless we can constitutionally support our arguments we have no credibility.

What I would like to do is first gather volumes of ideas and then start putting them into a format that we can use. We can’t just start shooting politicians. That will get us nowhere but dead or in jail. 

Let’s get our ideas out in the open. We will then gather again to vote on the constitutional relevancy of certain opinions before we submit them to the White House and both branches of our legislature. If they have our “constitutionally based” demands in print and choose not to respond in a manner that we feel conducive to change, then we will move forward to our only remaining option. It will be time bear arms against our government.

I feel like we have no grounds to call for the revolt until we first present our conditions to our elected officials.

I am simply offering to be the messenger but ultimately the success or failure depends on you. If this post falls dead in the water with 5 or even 50 comments then we are going nowhere.

This is the time for people of America to speak up if they really want to make changes in this government. Once we have all the terms and conditions ironed out we will formally petition our government. If that goes no where then we will look toward full use of our second amendment rights.

For now you must reject any new attempts to try to infringe on your second amendment rights and if you want to be involved in this “Think Tank” you must do three things for me:

  1. By all means I need to your ideas and comments below. Keep them constitutionally based. If you have no ideas or comments, at least let us know that you support us.
  2. I need you to join us on Facebook. Why is this important? Well did you notice that this is the first post on a brand new site? We have already been censored once and I need people to gather where we can inform them of developments.
  3. If you believe in this cause then you need to help us spread the word. Share it on your social networks or however you possibly can.

I will be watching the development of this post in regards to traffic and comments. I’m all in. I have made the offer. But again, if this ends up being a group of 5 or 50 people trying to push a revolution, we have nothing. The only way this works is if people unite right here and now. On an average blog post, it takes about 150-200 readers to generate 1 comment. If people can’t open their mouths this time then they will simply get what they deserve. I am putting myself out on a limb here. I will not fight for people who will not fight for themselves.

If you agree that this is the only way then you have to come out of hiding and get really loud now. You are allowed to disagree as well. This is America and I support your right to free speech. We have to know where we stand before we can make a decision to move forward.

“Before a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed; as they are in almost every kingdom of Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a force superior to any bands of regular troops that can be, on any pretense, raised in the United States.” -Noah Webster

I put myself out on a limb once before and people responded. Make no mistake, this is a frightening place to be. I have three beautiful girls and twins on the way. I am afraid for my safety and theirs, but my biggest fear is that they will have to live with the results of an American public resolved to cowardice. America must wake up. Apathetic no more! We must do something.

MOLON LABE!

There is a ton of great content on D.C. Clothesline so make sure to check them out and subscribe to get updates on new content via email.

A Foundation Of Stone…

A foundation of stone…what does that mean? It is in reference to the fact that our country was built on a foundation of stone. A solid foundation. A foundation that was designed to withstand the trials and tribulations of time. Unfortunately, the time has come where some “Americans” have started to chip away at and weaken our countries foundation. The only way to maintain our great country is to maintain our foundation. In order to know where we are, we have to know where we came from. The Constitution is one of the United States of America’s founding documents and one that everyone should read and at a minimum, be familiar with. This post is about being familiar with our roots, our Patriot Forefathers, and what makes America great. Please take the time to read it and if you know a fellow Patriot, please pass this along as a reminder of the importance of our Constitution.

Anyone who listens to my teaching and follows it is wise, like a person who builds a house on solid rock. Though the rain comes in torrents and the floodwaters rise and the winds beat against that house, it won’t collapse because it is built on bedrock.

Matthew 7:24-25

Constitution of the United States

Article. I.

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Section. 1.

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislaturethereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section. 4.

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5.

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6.

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section. 7.

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.
 
Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
 
Section. 8.
 
The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
 
To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
 
To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
 
To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
 
To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
 
To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;
 
To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
 
To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;
 
To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
 
To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;
 
To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
 
To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
 
To provide and maintain a Navy;
 
To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
 
To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
 
To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
 
To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;–And
 
To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
 
Section. 9.
 
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
 
The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
 
No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
 
No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
 
No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
 
No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
 
No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.
 
No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
 
Section. 10.
 
No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
 
No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
 
No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

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Article. II.

Section. 1.

The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:–“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section. 2.

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
 
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
 
Section. 3.
 
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
 
Section. 4.
 
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

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Article III.

Section. 1.

The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section. 2.

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;–to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;–to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;–to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;–to Controversies between two or more States;–between a State and Citizens of another State,–between Citizens of different States,–between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
 
The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
 
Section. 3.
 
Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
 
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

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Article. IV.

Section. 1.

Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section. 2.

The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section. 3.

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.

Section. 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened), against domestic Violence.

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Article. V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

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Article. VI.

All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

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Article. VII.

The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

The Word, “the,” being interlined between the seventh and eighth Lines of the first Page, the Word “Thirty” being partly written on an Erazure in the fifteenth Line of the first Page, The Words “is tried” being interlined between the thirty second and thirty third Lines of the first Page and the Word “the” being interlined between the forty third and forty fourth Lines of the second Page.

Attest William Jackson Secretary

done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names, 

G°. Washington
Presidt and deputy from Virginia

Delaware
Geo: Read
Gunning Bedford jun
John Dickinson
Richard Bassett
Jaco: Broom

Maryland
James McHenry
Dan of St Thos. Jenifer
Danl. Carroll

Virginia
John Blair
James Madison Jr.

North Carolina
Wm. Blount
Richd. Dobbs Spaight
Hu Williamson

South Carolina
J. Rutledge
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Pinckney
Pierce Butler

Georgia
William Few
Abr Baldwin

New Hampshire
John Langdon
Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts
Nathaniel Gorham
Rufus King 

Connecticut
Wm. Saml. Johnson
Roger Sherman

New York
Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey
Wil: Livingston
David Brearley
Wm. Paterson
Jona: Dayton

Pennsylvania
B Franklin
Thomas Mifflin
Robt. Morris
Geo. Clymer
Thos. FitzSimons
Jared Ingersoll
James Wilson
Gouv Morris